S.1605 became law on December 27, 2021. In reference to Iraq, the Act posits:
- No later than 90 days after the enactment of the Act, the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, must submit a report containing a description of the United States defense and diplomatic strategy for Syria, including a subsection with a plan for enduring security of ISIS detainees being held in SDF secured facilities, including Iraqi and Syrian nationals.
- The Act amends the Carl Levin Howard P. “Buck” McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015, by extending and modifying the authority to provide assistance to counter the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. This includes determining whether the government of Iraq is countering or suppressing the malign capabilities of Shia militias, is acting to protect the safety of U.S. government personnel, citizens, and U.S. facilities, is ensuring the safe and voluntary return of ethno-religious minority populations to their homes in the Nineveh Plains, and is providing support and funding to institutionalize and make permanent the local, representative, and regionally-based security forces. The amendment would also add an assessment of the impact of the Iraq and Syria Genocide Relief and Accountability Act of 2018 on the return rates of vulnerable, indigenous, ethno-religious groups, including Assyrians and Yazidis, in those areas of the Nineveh Plains region of Iraq in which assistance has been provided.
- No later than 180 days after the enactment of the Act, the Secretary of Defense must submit a report containing a strategy and plan to train and build sustainable military capabilities of the Iraqi security forces, a plan to engage the government of Iraq and the Kurdistan Regional Government in security sector reform, and a description of the current status, capabilities, and operational capacity of remaining ISIS elements active in Iraq and Syria.
- The Act limits the availability of funds to no more than $10,000,000 expended for the Office of Security Cooperation in Iraq, until the Secretary of Defense submits a report detailing further steps to reorganize the Office, describing any progress to the continuation of the bilateral engagement with the government of Iraq, outlining a five-year security assistance roadmap for developing sustainable military capacity and capabilities, and describing the progress on transitioning the funding to the Foreign Military Financing Administrative Fund and the Foreign Military Sales Trust Fund Administrative Surcharge Account in future years.
- The Act requires the Director of National Intelligence to create a report on the military capabilities of Iran, including an assessment of acts of violence and threats by Iranian-backed militias in Iraq.